馬休·佩裏

馬休·佩裏

馬休·卡爾布萊斯·佩裏(Matthew Calbraith Perry,1794年4月10日-1858年3月4日),或稱為培裏,美國海軍將領,因率領黑船開啟鎖國時期的日本國門而聞名于世。

日本稱呼其為"伯理"或"彼理",由于幕府方面的翻譯是荷蘭人的關系(由日語譯為荷蘭語,再由黑船上懂荷蘭語的船員譯為英語),當時的檔案上寫的名字是荷蘭文風格發音的"培爾裏"(ペルリ)。 馬休·佩裏出生在羅德島海軍家庭,父親和哥哥也是海軍將領。1854年,美國海軍準將馬休·佩裏率領遠征軍開啟了日本的國門,並與日本簽署《日美親善條約》(又稱《神奈川條約》)。

  • 中文名稱
    馬休·卡爾布萊斯·佩裏
  • 外文名稱
    Matthew Calbraith Perry
  • 出生地
    美國羅德島紐波特
  • 逝世日期
    1858年3月4日
  • 國    籍
    美國
  • 代表作品
    《日本遠征記》
  • 主要成就
    率領黑船開啟鎖國時期的日本國門
  • 職    業
    軍人
  • 出生日期
    1794年4月10日
  • 別    名
    培裏

個人成就

1853年7月8日,美國海軍準將馬休·佩裏率領艦隊進入江戶灣(今東京灣)岸的浦賀,要求與德川幕府談判,史稱“黑船事件”。1854年,日本與美國簽訂了神奈川《日美親善條約》,同意向美國開放除長崎外的下田和箱館(函館)兩個港口,並給予美國最惠國待遇等。由于接踵而來的一系列不平等條約的簽訂,德川幕府再度成為日本社會討伐的目標。

日本稱呼其為“彼理”,由于幕府方面的翻譯是荷蘭人的關系,當時的檔案上寫的名字是荷蘭文風格發音的“培爾裏(ペルリ)”。

生平

佩裏出生在美國羅德島州新港的一個海軍家庭。佩裏是美國海軍私掠船長克裏斯多福·雷蒙德·佩裏,和妻子莎拉所生的三男。哥哥奧利弗·哈澤德·佩裏也是海軍的知名將領。培裏本人也于1809年也加入海軍,1812年開始和兩個哥哥一起參加英美之間的1812年戰爭,1833年時任布魯克林海軍工廠的造船所長,1837年建造出美國海軍的第一條蒸氣船“富爾頓號”,同年晉升為海軍上校,1841年成為同海軍工廠的司令。佩裏遵從海軍以蒸氣船為主力的強化政策,並且實行士官教育,被稱為海軍的蒸氣船之父

1852年3月就任東印度艦隊的司令官,被授予“日本開國”的指令(但是禁止開炮)。同年11月帶著米勒德·菲爾莫爾總統的親筆信函從維吉尼亞州的諾福克港出航。以巡防艦密西西比號為旗艦,帶領其他三條船艦經由加那利群島→開普敦→新加坡→香港→琉球(今沖繩)→小笠原群島,最後于1853年7月8日(嘉永6年6月3日)于浦賀入港。7月14日(同年6月9日)應幕府的要求,從久裏濱護衛佩裏一行上陸,佩裏轉交總統的親筆信給戶田氏榮及井戶弘道。至此佩裏沒有和幕府具體作開國協定,僅有提出開國的要求,在測量幾天海灣後,幕府表示希望能給予考慮時間到明年再給予回答,接下來因為糧食等原因,艦隊先在琉球靠港。

1854年佩裏再訪日本,3月31日強迫幕府簽訂《日米和親條約》,歸國途中在那霸停泊並與琉球締結《琉米修好條約》。

佩裏此行曾在基隆停泊約十日間,登入勘查基隆煤礦,測量基隆港的港灣地勢。佩裏返國後,提出報告力陳台灣適合作為美國的遠東貿易中繼站,台灣有如圍繞佛羅裏達半島和猶加敦半島、製御墨西哥灣的古巴,主張加以佔領。

佩裏公園

在日本神奈川縣橫須賀市的久裏濱,有一座佩裏公園。當年由佩裏率領的黑船登船的地點,豎立了一座佩裏登入紀念碑,上有前日本首相伊藤博文的親筆手書:“北米合眾國水師提督佩裏上陸紀念碑”。

在佩裏公園裏,每年都有由民間組織的開國紀念活動,人稱“黑船祭”。在紀念表演活動中,當年的“入侵者”以英雄的姿態出現。

盡管當年佩裏仗著船堅炮利迫使日本簽訂第一份不平等條約,但後世的日本人並不視之為仇敵。相反,日本人有感佩裏促使日本開放改革,走上富國強兵之路,視之為日本的恩人。

由此可反映出日本民族的務實性格。

佩裏艦隊

1853年7月8日于日本江戸灣浦賀沖出現由美國海軍將領佩裏所率領之美國東印度艦隊4艘軍艦。日本人以“黑船”之名稱呼。

旗艦:“密西西比號巡洋艦”(USS Mississippi (1841)) 1841年12月22日在美國費城海軍造船廠(Philadelphia Naval Shipyard)竣工。1863年3月14日在(Port Hudson,Louisiana)擱淺被擊毀。

外輪式快速帆船:速度8節、水線長229呎、滿載排水量3,220噸、乘員380名。

裝備 10吋炮2門、8吋(Paixhans)炮8門

“薩斯凱哈那號巡洋艦”(USS Susquehanna (1850)) 1850年12月24日在紐約布魯克林海軍造船廠(Brooklyn Navy Yard)竣工。1868年1月14日在紐約布魯克林海軍造船廠(Brooklyn Navy Yard)除役,直到1883年9月27日賣給紐約市(E. Stannard)作廢船拆解。

外輪式快速帆船:速度10節、水線長257呎、滿載排水量2,450噸、乘員300名。

裝備 150磅(Parrott)炮2門、9吋(Dahlgren)滑腔炮12門、12磅炮1門

“薩拉多加號護衛艦”(USS Saratoga (1842)) 1842年7月26日在美國樸次茅斯海軍造船廠(Portsmouth Naval Shipyard)竣工,1843年1月4日服役。1888年8月8日除役變為海洋學校訓練船,直到1907年8月14日賣給波士頓(Thomas Butler & Company)公司。

單桅帆船:速度未知、水線長146 呎4吋、滿載排水量882噸、乘員210名。

裝備 8吋炮4門、32磅炮18門

“樸利茅斯號護衛艦”(USS Plymouth (1844)) 1844年4月3日在美國波士頓海軍造船廠(Boston Navy Yard)竣工。1861年4月20日在美國諾福克海軍造船廠(Norfolk Naval Shipyard)被美國南軍自我燒毀及鑿沉。

單桅帆船:速度未知、水線長147呎、滿載排水量189噸、乘員60名。

裝備 8吋炮4門、32磅炮18門

著作

‘日本遠征記’土屋喬雄、玉城肇譯 岩波文庫 (原著為‘Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan.’ 1856年 美利堅合眾國第33議會第2會期中特殊刊行物第97)

英文資料

Early life and naval career

Born in Rocky Brook,Rhode Island,he was the son of Captain Christopher R. Perry and the younger brother of OliverHazard Perry. Matthew Perry got a midshipman's commission in the Navy in 1809,and was initially assigned to Revenge,under the command of his elder brother.

Perry's early career saw him assigned to several ships,including the President,where he was aide to Commodore John Rodgers,which was in a victorious engagement over a British vessel,HMS Little Belt,shortly before the War of 1812 was officially declared. During that war Perry was transferred to USS United States,and as a result saw little fighting in that war afterward,since the ship was trapped at New London,Connecticut. After that war he served on various vessels in the Mediterranean and Africa (notably aboard USS Cyane during its patrol off Liberia in 1819-1820),sent to suppress piracy and the slave trade in the West Indies. Later during this period,while in port in Russia,Perry was offered a commission in the Russian navy,which he declined.

Opening of Key West

Perry commanded the Shark from 1821-1825. When England possessed Florida in 1763,the Spanish contended that the Florida Keys were part of Cuba and North Havana. The United States felt that Key West (which was then named Cayo Hueso,which means "Bone Island") could potentially be the "Gibraltar of the West" because it guarded the northern edge of the 90 mile wide Straits of Florida -- the deep water route between the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico.

In 1815 the Spanish governor in Havana,Cuba deeded the island of Key West,Florida to Juan Pablo Salas of Saint Augustine,Florida. After Florida was transferred to the United States,Salas sold Key West to U.S. businessman John W. Simonton for,000 in 1821. Simonton lobbied the U.S. Government to establish a naval base on Key West,both to take advantage of its strategic location and to bring law and order to Key West town.

On March 25,1822,Perry sailed the schooner Shark to Key West and planted the U.S. flag,physically claiming the Keys as United States property.

Perry renamed Cayo Hueso "Thompson's Island" for the Secretary of the Navy Smith Thompson and the harbor "Port Rodgers" for the president of the Board of Navy Commissioners. Neither name stuck.

From 1826-1827 Perry acted as fleet captain for Commodore Rodgers. Perry returned for shore duty to Charleston,South Carolina in 1828,and in 1830 took command of USS Concord. He spent the years of 1833-1837 as second officer of the New York Navy Yard (later the Brooklyn Navy Yard),gaining promotion to captain at the end of this tour.

Father of the Steam Navy

Perry had a considerable interest in naval education,supporting an apprentice system to train new seamen,and helped establish the curriculum for the United States Naval Academy. He was also a vocal proponent of modernizing the Navy. Once promoted to captain,he oversaw construction of the Navy's second steam frigate,USS Fulton,which he commanded after its completion. He was called "The Father of the Steam Navy",and he organized America's first corps of naval engineers,and conducted the first U.S. naval gunnery school while commanding Fulton in 1839-1840 off Sandy Hook on the coast of New Jersey.

Promotion to commodore

Perry acquired the courtesy title of Commodore in 1841,and was made chief of the New York Navy Yard in the same year. In 1843 he took command of the African Squadron,whose duty was to interdict the slave trade under the Webster-Ashburton Treaty,and continued in this endeavor through 1844.

The Mexican-American War

In 1845 Commodore David Connor's length of service in command of the Home Squadron had come to an end. However,the coming of the Mexican-American War persuaded the authorities not to change commanders in the face of the war. Perry,who would eventually succeed Connor,was made second-in-command and captained the USS Mississippi. Perry captured the Mexican city of Frontera,demonstrated against Tabasco and took part in the Tampico Expedition. He had to return to Norfolk,Virginia to make repairs and was still there when the amphibious landings at Vera Cruz took place. His return to the U.S. gave his superiors the chance to finally give him orders to succeed Commodore Connor in command of the Home Squadron. Perry returned to the fleet during the siege of Veracruz and his ship supported the siege from the sea. After the fall of Veracruz Winfield Scott moved inland and Perry moved against the remaining Mexican port cities. Perry assembled the Mosquito Fleet and captured Tuxpan in April,1847. In July 1847 he attacked Tabasco personally,leading a 1173-man landing force ashore and attacked the city from land.

The Opening of Japan: 1852-1854

Precedents

Perry's expedition to Japan was preceded by several naval expeditions by American ships:

From 1797 to 1809,several American ships traded in Nagasaki under the Dutch flag,upon the request of the Dutch,who were not able to send their own ships because of their conflict against Britain during the Napoleonic Wars. Trade was limited to the Dutch and Chinese at that time (sakoku).

In 1837,an American businessman in Canton,named Charles W. King,saw an opportunity to open trade by trying to return to Japan three Japanese sailors (among them,Otokichi) who had been shipwrecked a few years before on the coast of Oregon. He went to Uraga Channel with Morrison,an unarmed American merchant ship. The ship was attacked several times,and sailed back without completing its mission.

In 1846,Commander James Biddle,sent by the United States Government to open trade,anchored in Tokyo Bay with two ships,including one warship armed with 72 cannons,but his requests for a trade agreement remained unsuccessful.

In 1848,Captain James Glynn sailed to Nagasaki,leading at last to the first successful negotiation by an American with "Closed Country" Japan. James Glynn recommended to the United States Congress that negotiations to open Japan should be backed up by a demonstration of force,thus paving the way to Perry's expedition.

First visit,1852-1853

In 1852,Perry embarked from Norfolk,Virginia for Japan,in command of a squadron in search of a Japanese tradetreaty. Aboard a black-hulled steam frigate,he ported Mississippi,Plymouth,Saratoga,and Susquehanna at Uraga Harbor near Edo (modern Tokyo) on July 8,1853,and was met by representatives of the Tokugawa Shogunate who told him to proceed to Nagasaki,where there was limited trade with the Netherlands and which was the only Japanese port open to foreigners at that time (see Sakoku). Perry refused to leave and demanded permission to present a letter from President Millard Fillmore,threatening force if he was denied. The Japanese military forces could not resist Perry's modern weaponry; the "Black Ships" would then become,in Japan,a threatening symbol of Western technology and colonialism.

The Japanese government let Perry come ashore to avoid a naval bombardment. Perry landed at Kurihama,(near modern-day Yokosuka) on July 14,presented the letter to delegates present,and left for the Chinese coast,promising to return for a reply.

Second visit,1854

Perry returned in February 1854 with twice as many ships,finding that the delegates had prepared a treaty embodyingvirtually all the demands in Fillmore's letter. Perry signed the Convention of Kanagawa on March 31,1854 and departed,mistakenly believing the agreement had been made with imperial representatives.

On his way to Japan,Perry anchored off of Keelung in Formosa,known today as Taiwan,for ten days. Perry and crew members landed on Formosa and investigated the potential of mining the coal deposits in that area. He emphasized in his reports that Formosa provided a convenient mid-way trade location. Formosa was also very defensible. It could serve as a base for exploration like Cuba had done for the Spanish in the Americas. Occupying Formosa could help the US to counter European monopolization of the major trade routes. The United States government did not respond to Perry's proposal to claim sovereignty over Formosa.

Return to the United States,1855

When Perry returned to the United States in 1855,Congress voted to grant him a reward of,000 in appreciation of his work in Japan. Perry used part of this money to prepare and publish a report on the expedition in three volumes,titledNarrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan

Family

His wife Jane Slidell was sister of John Slidell and aunt of Alexander Slidell MacKenzie.

His sister Anna Maria married Commodore George Washington Rodgers. Their son Rear Admirial Christopher Raymond Perry Rodgers married to Julia Slidell-the parents of Rear Admirals Thomas Slidell Rogers and Raymond Perry Rodgers who was married to Gertrude Stuyvesant. {George Washington Rodgers was the brother of Commodore John Rodgers (naval officer,war of 1812). Commodore John Rodgers was the father in law of Union General Montgomery C. Meigs and grandfather of Lt. John Rodgers Meigs. General Meigs was the great-grandson of Colonel Return J. Meigs,Sr.}.

His daughter Sarah C. married Colonel Robert Smith Rodgers. Parents of Rear Admirial John Augustus Rogers the father of Commander John Rodgers (naval officer,World War I). Colonel Robert Rodgers was the brother of Rear Admirial John Rodgers (naval officer,Civil War).

His daughter Caroline Slidell married August Belmont,a 19th century banker/businessman.

Last years

Perry died three years later on March 4,1858 in New York City. His remains were moved to the Island Cemetery in Newport,Rhode Island on March 21,1866,along with those of his daughter,Anna,who died in 1839.

Trivia

Perry's middle name is often misspelled as Galbraith instead of Calbraith.

Among other mementos,Perry presented Queen Victoria with a breeding pair of Japanese Chin dogs,previously owned only by Japanese nobility.

A replica of Perry's US flag is on display on board the USS Missouri (BB-63) memorial in Pearl Harbor,Hawaii. It is attached to the bulkhead just inboard of the Japanese surrender signing site on the port side of the ship.

There is a Perry Park in Kurihama which has a monolith monument,erected in 1902,to the landing of Perry's forces. Within the park there is a small museum dedicated to the events of 1854,admission is free,and the museum is open from 10a.m to 4p.m seven days a week.

Mathew C. Perry Elementary School can be found on Marine Corps Air Station,Iwakuni,Japan. School mascot - Sammy the Samurai.

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