總統候選人

《總統候選人》是由Michael Ritchie 指導, 羅伯特·雷德福主演,講述了美國政壇的種種黑暗內幕,批評諷刺了美國政治。

  • 中文名稱
    總統候選人
  • 外文名稱
    TheCandidate
  • 編    劇
    Jeremy Larner
  • 類    型
    劇情
  • 導    演
     Michael Ritchie

基本資料

《候選人》

英文名:TheCandidate

導演: Michael Ritchie

編劇: Jeremy Larner

主演: 羅伯特·雷德福RobertRedford....BillMcKay

彼得·伯耶爾PeterBoyle....Lucas

茂文·道格拉斯MelvynDouglas....JohnJ.McKay

影片類型: 劇情

片長: 109min

國家/地區: 美國

對白語言: 英語

色彩: 彩色

混音: 單聲道

級別: Australia:PG/Sweden:Btl/Finland:S/USA:PG/Spain:13

攝製格式: 35mm

洗印格式: 35mm

上映日期

美國

USA1972年6月29日......(NewYorkCity,NewYork)

瑞典

Sweden1972年10月18日

西班牙

Spain1972年12月13日

芬蘭

Finland1974年11月29日

荷蘭

Netherlands1975年7月17日 

一句話評論

Nothingmattersmorethanwinning.Notevenwhatyoubelievein.

候選人獲獎履歷

美國編劇工會(WGAAward(Screen))1973

最佳劇情類原創劇本JeremyLarner

奧斯卡1973

最佳音響(提名)GeneS.Cantamessa

最佳音響(提名)RichardPortman

最佳原創劇本JeremyLarner

劇情介紹

MarvinLucas,PeterBoyle,apoliticalelectionspecialist,isgiventheunenviabletaskoffindingademocraticcandidatetounseatCaliforniaU.S.SenatorCrockerJarmon,apopularRepublican.Withnobig-nameDemocrateagertoentertheseeminglyunwinnablerace,LucasseeksoutBillMcKay(RobertRedford),athirty-something,married,attractivemanwhocouldn’tbefurtherremovedfrompolitics.DespitebeingthesonofformergovernorJohnJ.McKay(playedbyMelvynDouglas),Billwasneverinterestedinpoliticsandinsteadactsasalawyerforliberalcauses.

LucasgivesMcKayabluntproposition:Jarmoncan’tlose;andsincetheraceisalreadydecided,McKayisfreetohitthecampaigntrailandsayexactlywhathewantsbecausenoneofitmattersanyway.Thoughhenowknowshewilldefinitelylose,McKayacceptsthepropositionbecauseitgiveshimthechancetospeaktogroupsofpeopleandspreadhisliberalvalues(whichincludesupportforabortionrights,busing,environmentalregulation,andwelfare).Herejectshelporinvolvementfromhisfather,wantingtomakeitonhisownsteam.

McKayhitsthecampaigntrailandbeginscourtingvoters.Histeamofcampaignstaffersstartairingpro-McKaycommercialswhilecreatingadsdesignedtomakeJarmonlookoldandweary.WithnoseriousDemocraticopposition,McKaycruisestotheDemocraticnominationonhisnamealone.HeisthenconfrontedbyLucas,whohasdistressingnews:Accordingtothelatestelectionprojections,McKayissettobedefeatedbyanoverwhelmingmargincomeNovember.WhileMcKaycountedonlosing,henevercountedonbeing“humiliated”–andtherecentprimarywinmeanshecannolongerbackoutandquittherace.Worriedbyapossibleblowout,heagreestostart“broadening”hismessagetoappealtomorevoters.

Throughoutthenextseveralmonths,McKaytravelsthestateandcampaigns,withhisliberalstatementserodingeachday.Hisearlysupportofabortionrightsandguncontrolfadetomush,whilehisstumpspeechisreducedtothesamefewclichésandanewslogan:"Forabetterway:BillMcKay!"ThenewapproachcausesMcKaytogaininthepublicopinionpolls,buthehasanewproblem.BecauseMcKay’sfatherhasstayedcompletelyoutoftherace,themediaspeculatesthatsuchsilenceisactuallyanendorsementofJarmon.McKaybegrudginglymeetshisfatherandtellshimtheproblem.McKay'sfatherthentellsthemediaheisnotendorsingJarmon,simplyhonoringhisson’swishestostayoutoftherace.AsMcKaycontinuestodoashe’stold(ratherthansaywhat’sinhisheart),hecontinuestogaininthepolls.Asthecampaigncontinues,McKaysuddenlybecomesself-awarethatheisbeingmanipulatedandyellsatLucastoexplainwhatthecampaignhasbecome.ThoughLucasneververbalizesit,it’sevidentthat,inhiswisdom,LucassawMcKayasanunpolishedgem–acandidatewhobeganwiththingsyoucouldn’tbuy:goodlooks,confidenceandmassivenamerecognition.LucasthencountedonmoldingMcKayasthemonthswentalong.LucastellsMcKaythattheshiftinelectionstrategyisn’timportant.Whatisimportant,hesays,isthatMcKayisnowonlyninepointsdown–soclose,infact,thatJarmonproposedadebate.Lucassaysthedebatewillprovideachancetoclosethelastgapinthepolls.McKay,somewhatresignedtohisnewcourseofstrategy,agreestogivetailoredanswersinthedebate,ratherthanhisrealopinions.

Thedebatehappens,andthetwocandidatestradebarbs,withMcKaytheslightwinneroverall.Justasthedebateisending,McKayhasapangofconscienceandblurtsoutthatthedebatedidn’taddressanyrealsubjects,suchaspovertyandrace.Lucasandhisstaffersarefurious,knowingthisoutburstwillhurtthecampaign.ThemediagotoconfrontMcKaybackstageabouthisremarksbutarrivejustasJohnJ.McKayappearsandvigorouslycongratulateshissononthedebate,apparentlyhavingbeenveryimpressedwiththehonestyMcKayshowedattheend(butprobably,asaseasonedpolitician,actuallypullingthestunttodeflectfromhisson'spoliticalgaffe).InsteadofthemediareportingonMcKay’soutburst,thestorybecomesthereemergenceofformerGov.McKaytohelphisson.Thepositivestory,coupledwithMcKay’sfather’shelponthecampaigntrail,putsthingsneckandneckwithJarmon.

Electiondayarrivesandvolunteerscanvasstogetoutthevote.McKay,meanwhile,hasstrayedsofarfromhisoriginalvaluesthathe’sinahotelroomslightlyconfused.ThevotesarecountedandMcKaywins.Inoneofthemovie’smorefamousscenes,McKayescapesthevictorypartyandpullsLucasintoaroomwhilethrongsofjournalistsclamoroutside.McKaythenasksLucas:“Marvin...Whatdowedonow?”ThemediathrongarrivestodragthemoutatthatmomentandMcKayneverreceivesananswer.

分析

ThefilmhighlightsmanycriticismsofmoderndayAmericanpolitics,suchastheimportanceofmoneyandtheemphasisontheimageofpoliticalcandidates.Inparticular,thedegenerationofMcKayfromanidealisticpublic-interestlawyerworkingforunpopularandthen-little-knowncauses(theyoungenvironmentalistmovement,civilrightsforLatinos,integrationthroughbusing)andstrongopinionsonallissuesintoaconstructofhiscampaign,dominatedbyidioticlittleslogans(mostnotably"BillMcKay:thebetterway")andaroad-wearynervouswreck,toboot.

Thetitularcandidateispoliticallydisaffected.Itisrevealedthathehasnotregisteredtovoteanddoesnothaveaclearpoliticalmessagetocommunicate.Butthereareissuesheisinterestedin(‘savedsometreesandgotaclinicopen’asLucasbaldyexplains)andthisopportunitypresentsapublicplatformandthefacilitytobeinapositiontocommunicatehisideas.Inagreeingtorun,afterLucasguaranteesthathe’lllose,hemakeswhatIanScottdescribesasa‘Faustianpact’,whichwillinevitablyleadtohisideologybeingsubmergedduringtheprocessofcampaigning.

McKaynaivelybelievesthatLucaswilllethim,toparaphrase,gowherehewants,dowhathewantsandsaywhathepleases.Asthenarrativeprogressesthispromisedfreedomevaporates,hisideologybecomeserodedandheiscompromised.His‘straightforwardstandsonissues’areblandedoutininterviewrehearsals–heisrevealedtobepro-choiceonabortionbutadvisedtosaythatheisconsideringwhathispositionshouldbe.Whenhedoesgooffmessage,andpresentshisownideas,particularattheendofatelevisiondebatewithhisrival,itistreatedwiththesamecollectivehorrorasabasketballplayerdroppingtheballatacrucialmomentofagame.DespitesomeearlyscenesinwhichthecandidatestrollsontoabeachtotalkoffthecufftoyoungstersaboutenvironmentalissuesanddoingwalkaboutsinWatts(recordedfootageofwhichareusedintelevisioncommercialsthroughoutthecampaign),bytheendofthefilmhe’sstandingonsoapboxesworkingapre-preparedspeechinfrontofmiddleclassgardenpartiesandfactoryworkers.McKaychangesthesocialclasseshetalkstoinordertowinvotes.Heisevenquotingthecampaignsloganinthestumpspeech.

McKaybecomescorrupted,butitislargelyhisownchoice.Inakeyscene,heiscalledintoLucas’warroomandshowntheresultsofapollinwhichheislosingbadly,heaskswhythatissoimportantsincehewasgoingtoloseanyway.‘Lucasaskshimifhereallywantstobehumiliated.McKayanswers,“Thatwasn’tpartofthedeal.”’Evenwhenhemakesattemptstodistancehimselffromtheprocess--he‘collapsesintohelplesslaughterwhiletryingtotapeatelevisionstatement;hemockshisownstumpspeech.’andsitsinthebackofthecampaigncarmockinghisstumpspeech(‘thiscountrycannothouseitshouseless’)–itisclearthathecaresforhisownimage,especiallyintheeyesofthevotingpublic.Whenarumoursuggeststhathisfather,whomhehashithertokeptoutofthecampaign,isbackingJarman,hisrival,heimmediatelypayshimavisitinordertogetastatementreleased.Indeedhisdescentintopoliticsbecomesacliché–itisvisuallyhintedthatheisgoingtobelateforanimportantmeetingwithalabourleaderafterabriefromantictrystwithacampaignworker.‘Thereisasexualcompromiseforthecandidateandanassociationbetweensexandpower’.Intheclosingmomentsheischaste.‘IwonderifanybodyunderstoodwhatIwastryingtodo’,towhichisfatherreplies,"Don’tworry,son,itwon’tmakeanydifference."

unusually,inafilmsosteepedinpoliticalandelectoralprocess,theiconographyusuallyassociatedwithacampaign,andinparticularthestarsandstripes,onlyappearatcertainkeymomentsinordertodemonstratethecorruptionofthecandidate.UnlikeTimRobbins’sBobRoberts(1992)inwhichtheAmericanflagisfetishisedtothepointofparodywiththetitularRobertsinonekeyimagestandingnakedbutforaflagwrappedabouthisform,McKayisdistancedfromeventhecolorsthroughmuchofthefilm.ItisworthnotingthattheposterforthefilmhasRobertRedfordfrontandcenterwiththeU.S.flaginthebackground,whichisanoddchoiceconsideringitslackofanappearancethroughoutmuchofthefilm.

Hiscampaignbannerisingreenandyellowandattheralliesorganizedbyhisowncampaignteam,red,white,andbluearenowheretobeseen.TheonlydeploymentoftheflagitselfinthefilmhappensalmostsubliminallyduringanarchivetelevisioncommercialforhisRepublicancompetitor.Whenthecolorsdofinallyappear,drapedoveracarduringatickertapeparadewithMcKaystandinginthecenter,itemphasisesthatthecandidate’sapproachhasutterlychanged–intheselatesuccessfulstageshehasembracedthestandardiconographyofapoliticalcampaignandisaligninghimselfwithexpectation.

Onecentralmessageofthefilmisthatthebusinessofcampaigninghasoverriddentheconditionoftakingoffice.Attheendofthefilmratherthanbeing‘triumphantinvictory:BillMcKayisonlyconfused’.Theweaknessisthatthespectatordoesnotclearlyseetheconsequencesofthecampaign.AsScottdescribes‘Thedilemmaforthedirectorwastoanswerthesechargesofmediapowerandsoundbitemanipulation,notsimplypointedlytoallowcampaignguruLucastoflyofftohisnextcandidateasifgoingtoasalesmeeting.’justaftertheoft-quotedlinefromMcKay‘WhatdoIdonow?’Monacoagreesthatitisnot‘enoughtoexcusethefilmbyexplainingthatitworksinaBrechtianway,toaskquestionsratherthantoanswerthem.Brechtalwaysimpliedanswers.’

Ithasbeenreportedthatuponviewingthefilm,DanQuaylecametotheconclusionthathewasmorehandsomethanRobertRedford,andthathewouldbewellequippedtowinacampaigntoentertheWhiteHouse.Ironically,thefuturevice-presidentoftheUnitedStates,perhapsinadvertently,highlightsoneofthethemesofthepiece–thatnomattertheideologyorinterestsofthecandidate,thebusinessofpoliticalcampaigningisdrivenbyimage.

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