權利法案 -美國《權利法案》

權利法案

美國《權利法案》
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《權利法案》,又譯《人權法案》(英文:United States Bill of Rights)指的是美國憲法中第一至第十條憲法修正案。

​內容簡介

美國權利法案的歷史稿件(美國國家檔案與檔案局珍藏)

權利法案的10條修正案包括:

第一條:言論、宗教、和平集會自由; 第二條:持有與佩戴武器的權利; 第三條:免于民房被軍隊征用; 第四條:免于不合理的搜查與扣押; 第五條:正當程式(Due Process)、一罪不能兩判、禁止逼供、禁止剝奪私人財產; 第六條:未經陪審團不可定罪以及被控告方的其他權利; 第七條:民事案件中要求陪審團的權利; 第八條:禁止過度罰金與酷刑; 第九條:未被列入的其他權利同樣可以受到保護; 第十條:人民保留未經立法的權利;

法案原文

第一條 Amendment I

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

譯文:國會不得製定關于下列事項的法律:確立國教或禁止信教自由;剝奪言論自由或出版自由;或剝奪人民和平集會和向政府請願伸冤的權利。

第二條 Amendment II

A well regulated Militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms shall not be infringed.

譯文:紀律嚴明的民兵是保障自由州的安全所必需的,人民持有和攜帶武器的權利不可侵犯。

第三條 Amendment III

No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

譯文:未經房主同意,士兵平時不得駐扎在任何住宅;除依法律規定的方式,戰時也不得駐扎。

第四條 Amendment IV

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

譯文:人民的人身、住宅、檔案和財產不受無理搜查和扣押的權利,不得侵犯。除依據可能成立的理由,以宣誓或代誓宣言保證,並詳細說明搜查地點和扣押的人或物,不得發出搜查和扣押狀。

第五條 Amendment V

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

譯文:除非根據大陪審團的報告或起訴書,任何人不受死罪或其他重罪的審判,但發生在陸、海軍中或發生在戰時或出現公共危險時服役的民兵中的案件除外;任何人不得因同一犯罪行為而兩次遭受生命或身體的危害;不得在任何刑事案件中被迫自證其罪;不經正當法律程式,不得被剝奪生命、自由或財產。不給予公平賠償,私有財產不得充作公用。

第六條 Amendment VI

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

譯文:在一切刑事訴訟中,被告有權由犯罪行為發生地的州和地區的公正陪審團予以迅速和公開的審判,該地區應事先已由法律確定;得知控告的性質和理由;同原告證人對質;以強製 程式取得對其有利的證人;並取得律師幫助為其辯護。

第七條 Amendment VII

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

譯文:在普通法的訴訟中,其爭執價額超過二十美元,由陪審團審判的權利應受到保護。由陪審團裁決的事實,合眾國的任何法院除非按照習慣法規則,不得重新審查。

第八條 Amendment VIII

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

譯文:不得要求過多的保釋金,不得處以過重的罰金,不得施加殘酷和非常的懲罰。

第九條 Amendment IX

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

譯文:本憲法對某些權利的列舉,不得被解釋為否定或輕視由人民保留的其他權利。

第十條 Amendment X

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

譯文:憲法未授予合眾國、也未禁止各州行使的權力,由各州各自保留,或由人民保留。

歷史影響

《權利法案》的第一條,即美國憲法第一修正案對美國影響巨大。美國媒體所享有的一切自由都源于此,在美國,凡是涉及言論、新聞、出版等訴訟,往往都會搬出此,它幾乎成為美國媒體或個人言論自由的護身符,不可動搖。以至于美國人把它頌揚為“美國生活方式”的主要內容。

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