強調

強調

在交際中,人們為使自己的思想能為聽者或讀者恰當地理解,必須突出重要的內容,這就需要運用強調的手段。在現代英語中,強調的手段多種多樣,有辭彙手段(通過單個的詞或片語),文法手段(通過反身代詞,助動詞或強調句型),修辭手段(通過倒裝和重復)等。

  • 中文名稱
    強調
  • 外文名稱
    only, just,
  • py 
    qiang diao
  • 解釋
    為使自己的思想能為聽者或讀者恰當地理解,必須突出重要的內容

片語

能夠表示強調的詞或片語很多,例如:only, just, exactly, precisely, too, very, ever, even, really, surely, for certain, for sure, still等。

a. only

從理論上講,only應緊挨所修飾的詞,位于動詞、形容詞、副詞之前,位于名詞、代詞之前或之後。

--He had only six apples. (隻有六個)

--He only lent the car. (隻是借出)

--He lent the car to me only. (隻是借給我)

--I believe only half of what he said. (隻信一半)

當由only修飾的狀語位于句首時,可引起局部倒裝。

--Only then can some of the explanations put forward be adequately tested.

--Only in this way can a good result be achieved.

--Only when all the rules are operating will the transformational grammar yield grammatical sentences.

b. just, exactly, precisely

當要強調確切性-不僅整體上而且各個細節上都正確,可用副詞just, exactly, precisely。例如:

--They'd always treated her exactly as if she were their own daughter.

--Their décor(室內裝飾) was exactly right.

--I know just how you feel.

--He had no right to run off and leave her alone, just as if she was someone of no importance at all.

--The peasants are weak precisely because they are poor.

c. too

表示"太…"。置于表語類屬性形容詞前,可表示某人或某物具有的某種屬性過多。

--Dad thought I was too idealistic.

--The shoes were too big for him.

--He was too proud to apologize.

--She was too weak to lift me.

Too還可置于限定詞many,much和few之前,表示"…太多""…太少"。

--You ask too many questions, Sam.

--There is too much chance of error.

--Too few people nowadays are interested in Literature.

d. very

--The job was very easy.

--He had come at the very last moment.

--That very next afternoon he was working in his room.

--He spent weeks in that very same basement.

very可修飾形容詞的最高級,這時它隻能與加-est構成的最高級或the best/the worst 連用。very 置于the 和最高級之間。

--It was of the very highest quality.

--He did the very best he could.

e. ever

ever位于who, what, where, why, when, how之後,用來表示強調說話人驚奇、驚訝、憤怒、氣惱和沮喪的語氣。它與on earth, in the world有同樣的含義。

--Why ever did you wash it in boiling water?

--Who ever are you?

--What ever are you doing in my car?

--Where ever have you put my briefcase?

--How ever did he escape unhurt?

為了強調否定,ever可置于否定詞之後。

--I can't say I ever had much interest in fishing.

--Nobody ever leaves the airport.

f. a good deal,a great deal,a lot,much,far,by far,even,still

這組詞都常用來修飾形容詞的比較級,強調形容詞所表達方式的屬性多得多或少得多。

--It would be a good deal easier if you came to my place.

--The journey back was a great deal more unpleasant than the outward one had been.

--You look a lot better.

--He is a much better dentist than you.

--There are far worse dangers.

--His explanation is clearer by far.

--She's even lazier than me.

--I had a still more recent report.

--The text is actually worse still. (still可置于比較形容詞之前或之後) 其中much和by far可修飾形容詞的最高級。much用于the和最高級之前。

--Music may have been much the most respectable of his tastes.

By far既可用于the和最高級之前,也可用于其後。

--They are by far the most dangerous creatures on the island.

--The Union was the largest by far.

g. for sure,for certain

這兩個強調語都是放在句末使用。

--They will warn us for sure.

--I can't tell you for sure.

--They don't know for certain.

h. at all通常用于否定陳述句中加強語氣。它可與多種表否定的詞連用。

--She had no writing ability at all.

--They run education without any control at all from central government.

--He hardly read anything at all.

--Haven't you got any at all?

i. in the least, in the slightest, the least bit, a bit.

這幾個片語都常用來強調含有not 的否定句。其中in the least和in the slightest可與動詞和形容詞連用。當他們與動詞連用時,通常放在動詞或動賓之後;當他們與形容詞連用時,in the least可置于形容詞之前, in the slightest通常位于形容詞之後。而the least和a bit隻與形容詞連用,放在形容詞之前。

--She did not worry Billy in the least.

--My tennis hadn't improved in the slightest.

--I wasn't in the least surprised.

--She wasn't worried in the slightest.

--She wasn't the least bit jealous.

--They're not a bit interested.

句型

a. 反身代詞

人們有時用反身代詞替代人稱代詞作介詞賓語表示強調。

--My first pupil today is a Pole like myself.

--There is always someone worse off than yourself.

反身代詞可附加在名詞或人稱代詞之後,用于強調或明確所指對象。

--We ourselves have got to build our own strength.

--Sally herself came back.

--The town itself was so small that it didn't have a priest.

反身代詞還可強調表示某人無別人幫助或不受幹擾做某事。這種用法中的反身代詞通常置于句末。

--She had printed the card herself.

--I'll take it down to the police station myself.

b. 助動詞do

在動詞原形前加do, does或did可強調陳述。

--I do feel sorry for Roger.

--A little knowledge does seem to be a dangerous thing.

--He had no time or energy to play with his children or talk with his wife, but he did bring home a regular salary.

--Do have a chocolate biscuit.

--Do help yourselves.

c. It is/was…that/who…句型

用It is/was…that/who…句型可用來強調名詞片語或句子其他成分或整個從句及小句上。強調句型it is/was…that 是外加成分,可以去掉,句意完整。

--It's money that they want.

--It was from Francis that she first heard the news.

--Perhaps it's because he's a misfit that I get along with him.

--Is it Professor Wang who teaches you English? (本句型的疑問形式)

重復

a. 倒裝

英語陳述句的第一個成分通常是動詞的主語。但是,要強調另一成分時,可將它置于句首(前置 fronting),而主語及動詞的正常位置也會引起變動,這種位置變更叫倒裝。

--Next to it stood a pile of paper cups.

--The door burst open and in rushed the crowd.

--Often did we go for walks together.

--Never in history had technology made such spectacular advances.

--Rare indeed is the individual who does not belong to one of these groups.

--Break his bloody neck, I will.

--Wailed the astonished banker: "You're not just doing your part for the American economy."

b. 重復

--It's far, far too expensive.

--I agree with every word you've said - every single word.

--It was the largest swarm of locusts that had ever been seen or that ever would be seen.

位置

大多數強調語位于它們所強調的詞項之前,但是也有一些可放前也可放後,例如:still, by far, in the least, in the slightest。for certain和for sure則是位于句末。這些在第一節中都已經強調過,在此就不再重復。強調語位置的不同,所要表達的內容也會有一定的差異。

--I really don't know him. = I don't know him at all.

強調字強調字

--I don't really know him. = I don't know him well.

really位于否定範圍之內和之外引起兩個句子之間的差異(劃橫線的部分為否定範圍)。

考題

題1:________ that caused him to serve dinner an hour later than usual.

A. It was we being late B. It was our being late

C. It was we were too late D. It was because we were late

【陷阱】此題容易誤選D,認為強調的是原因狀語從句 because we were late。

【分析】但實際上,此題的答案為B,強調的是句子主語 our being late,此題若還原成非強調句,即為:

Our being late caused him to serve dinner an hour later than usual.

註意,強調句的一個顯著特點是,若去掉強調結構 it is [was]… that…,句子仍然成立;換句話說,該結構中的 that 不能充當句子成分。

題2:“Where did you find the professor who made the speech yesterday?” “It was in the hall ______ the students often have a meeting.”

A. where B. which

C. that D. when

【陷阱】很可能誤選C,認為這是一個強調句,強調地點狀語 in the hall。

【分析】假若選C,即有 It was in the hall that the students often have a meeting,該句的意思是“學生們通常是在大廳開會”,單獨看這一句,無論是其意思還是其文法均未錯,但若將其與上文聯系起來看,則不通,因為上文的意思是“你是在哪兒找到昨天作報告的那位教授的?”假若將答句改為 It was in the hall that I found the professor,則完全可以。

其實,此題的最佳答案是A,where the students often have a meeting 為定語從句,用以修飾其前的名詞 the hall,句意為“是在學生們經常開會的那個大廳(找到教授的)”,這樣意涵就通順了。

題3:It was what he meant rather than what he said ______ annoyed me.

A. which B. as

C. what D. that

【陷阱】幾個幹擾項均有可能誤選。

【分析】此題為一個強調句型,空格處應填 that (即選D),被強調成分為 what he meant rather than what he said。句意為“讓我生氣的不是他說的話,而是他話中的意思”。請再看兩例:

(1) It was his nervousness in the interview ______ probably lost him the job.

A. which B. since C. that D. what

答案選C,為強調句型,被強調成分為 his nervousness in the interview,句意為“很可能是面試時表現出緊張,使他失去了這份工作”。

(2) It is the ability to do the job ______ matters not where you come from or what you are.

A. one B. that C. what D. it

答案選B,為強調句型,被強調成分為 the ability to do the job,句意為“重要的是你做工作的能力,而不是你來自何地或你是從事什麽工作的”。

題4:Was it five o’clock ______the fire broke out?

A. when B. that

C. which D. in which

【陷阱】容易誤選B,誤認為這是強調句。

【分析】其實,此題應選A,這不是強調句。因為在強調句中,若去掉強調句的結構詞 it is [was]…that…,句子結構仍然完整,但此句不是這樣,若去掉結構詞,即為 Five o’clock the fire broke out,句子不完整,但若在five o’clock前加上介詞at則可以,因為 at five o’clock 用作時間狀語。此題選A可分析為:it 表時間,when the fire broke out 為時間狀語從句,全句意為“火災是5點鍾發生的嗎?”比較下面一題(答案選B,為強調句):

Was it at five o’clock ______the fire broke out?

A. when B. that

C. which D. in which

題5:It’s more than half a century _____ my grandfather joined the Party and became a servant to the people.

A. when B. that

C. since D. while

【陷阱】容易誤選B,認為這是強調句型。

【分析】假若選B,將此句分析為強調句,那麽若將此句還原為非強調句就應該是My grandfather joined the Party and became a servant to the people more than half a century. 很顯然, 句中的 more than half a century 是一段時間,然而它修飾的謂語動詞 joined…became 卻是兩個終止性動詞,這顯然不合適。其實,此題應選C,屬于“It is+一段時間+since 從句”句型,句意為“我阿公加入黨組織成為人民的公僕已有半個多世紀了”。此句的主句謂語也可以用現在完成時態(has been),但在口語中多用一般現在時代替。

題6:It was lack of money, not of effort, _____ defeated their plan.

A. which B. as

C. that D. what

【陷阱】容易誤選A,受空格前逗號的影響,誤認為這是一個非限製性定語從句,從而誤選了A。

【分析】其實,此題最佳答案為C,整個句子為強調句,被強調成分為 lack of money, not of effort。由于句中插入 not of effort 這一結構,幹擾了許多同學對 it was lack of money that defeated their plan 這一強調句的認識和理解。

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