尾碼

尾碼

尾碼是一種重要的構詞法,通過尾碼常常可以判斷出一個詞的詞性。一個英語單詞可以分為三個部分:首碼(prefix),詞根(stem)及尾碼(suffix)。單詞中位于詞根前面的部分就是首碼。首碼,可以改變單詞的意思。在語言學裏,尾碼,又稱詞尾,是一種後置于其他詞素後的詞綴

  • 中文名稱
    尾碼
  • 解釋
    一種重要的構詞法
  • 分類
  • 舉例
    .-ster,-eer

基本介紹

以英語為例:establish(動詞)+ -ment(尾碼)—> establishment(名詞):借由尾碼 -ment 的使用,使原本的動詞詞素轉為名詞,為語言的衍生,是尾碼的一種用途。

名詞尾碼

常見的此類尾碼及其具體含義如下:

1.-ster,-eer,-er(or)意為:從事某種職業或參與某種活動的人(person engaged in an occupation or activity)例詞:gamester,gangster,so

尾碼 尾碼 尾碼 尾碼

​ngster,engineer,profiteer,mountaineer,auctioneer,driver,teacher,director,actor,professor

2.-let意為:小或者不重要的東西(small,unimportant things)例詞:booklet,leaflet,starlet

3.-ette意為:1)小的東西(small)例詞:cigarette 2)假的東西(imitation)例詞:leatherette 3)女性(female)例詞: usherette

4.-ess意為:女性(female)例詞:actress,poetess,hostess,paintress

5.-hood意為:時期(status;etc.)例詞:boyhood,childhood,manhood

6.-ship意為:才能,狀態,資格,品質等(skill,state,condition,status,quality)例詞:leadership,friendship,membership,lectureship,sportsmanship

7.-ful意為:量(the amount which noun contains)例詞:cupful,handful, mouthful,spoonful

8.-tion,-ion意為:1)狀態,行動等(state;action;etc.)例詞:action,oppression,possession,education,starva- tion 2)機構等(institution;etc.)例詞: organization,foundation

9.-ment意為:狀態,行動等(state; action;etc.)例詞:movement,enslavement,pavement

10.-al意為:動作(action)例詞:arrival,refusal,revival,recital,removal

11.-age意為:程度,數量等(extent; amount;etc.)例詞:wastage,coverage, acreage,shrinkage,breakage,hostage

12.-ness;-ity(ty)意為:狀態,品質(state;quality;etc.)例詞:happiness, usefulness,selfishness,kindness,rapidity,activity,sanity,changeability

13.-ism意為:道義,主義,學說等(doctrine of,practice of)例詞:idealism, impressionism,absenteeism,racism

動詞尾碼

常見的此類尾碼及其具體含義如下:

1.-ify意為:轉為,變為(to turn into,to make or become)例詞:beautify, diversify,simplify

2.-ize;-en意為:使……,變得……(to make or become ;to make into)例詞:modernize,popularize,legalize,hospitalize,symbolize,ripen,widen,heighten,threaten

3.-ate意為:增加,使……聽寫(give or add,make or become)例詞:originate, hydrogenate,validate,differentiate

形容詞尾碼

常見的此類尾碼及其具體含義如下:

1.-ful意為:充滿,有(full of;hav- ing;giving;etc.)例詞:useful,pitiful, hopeful,careful,helpful,forgetful,thankful, fearful

2.-less意為:沒有,無(without;not giving)例詞:speechless,childless,harmless,hopeless,meaningless ,homeless

3.-ly意為:有……品質的(having the qualities of)例詞:beastly,manly, brotherly,friendly

4.-like意為:像……的(like)例詞: childlike,statesmanlike,tiger-like

5.-y;-ish意為:像……一般的(somewhat like)例詞:meaty,sandy, silky,hairy,leafy,watery,foolish,girlish,blackish,thinnish

6.-some意為:像……一樣的;引起……的;有……品質的(like;causing; having the quality of)例詞:troublesome,burdensome,wholesome,tiresome,bothersome

7.-able(ible)意為:能……的;可以……的(able to be ;capable)例詞: changeable,reliable,readable,drinkable,comfortable,expansible,convincible

8.-ed意為:有……的(having,etc.)例詞:wooded,pointed,moneyed, odd-shaped

9.-al意為:有……屬性的,……類型的(nature of,typical of)例詞:cultural,personal,regional,musical

10.-ary(ory)意為:屬于……的,與……相連的(belonging to;connected with)例詞:revolutionary,imaginary, contradictory

11.-ous意為:富含……的;有……品質的;像……的(full of;having the quality of;like)例詞:glorious,erroneous,malicious,gracious

12.-ic(ical)意為:……類的;屬于……的(typical of;belonging to)例詞: historic,historical,methodic,methodical,dramatic,heroic

13.-ive意為:有……屬性的;有某種傾向的(having the nature or quality of;given or tending to)例詞:attractive, talkative,restrictive,defensive,preventive,constructive,sensitive

副詞尾碼

常見的此類尾碼及其具體含義如下:

1.-ly意為:以……方式(in a...manner;etc.)

例詞:happily, boldly,attentive- ly,strangely

2.-ward(s)意為:表示方式或動作的方向(manner and direction of movement)例詞:onward(s),backward(s),earthward(s),homeward(s),eastward(s)

3.-wise意為:1)按照……方式(in the manner of)例詞:crabwise,clockwise2)就……而言(asfar as ...is concerned)例詞:weatherwise ,educationwise

4.以ly尾碼結尾的副詞,比較級都是+more,如more carefully,more useful最高級+most 如most carefully,most useful

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