動詞

動詞

動詞(Verb),就是用來表示動作或狀態的辭彙。基本上每個完整的句子都有一個動詞,要表示第二個動作時可使用不定詞、動名詞、對等連線詞、從屬連線詞或增加子句等方法連結。

<比如> 突躍,突擊,突襲等描述動作過程均屬動詞。

中文文法中表示人或事物的動作或一種動態變化。一般出現在名詞主語或主句後面。

  • 中文名稱
    動詞
  • 讀音
    dòng cí
  • 釋義
    用來形容或表示各類動作的辭彙
  • 分類
    實義動詞、系動詞、助動詞、情態動詞

類別

表示動作和狀態的詞叫做動詞。

1) 四類句中功能

分別是:實義動詞(Notional Verb)、系動詞(Link Verb)、助動詞(Auxiliary Verb)、情態動詞

動詞

(Modal Verb)。

還可以分成及物動詞和不及物動詞

說明:有些情況下,有些動詞是兼類詞例如:

We are having a meeting. 我們正在開會。 (having是實義動詞。)

He has gone to New York. 他已去紐約。

(has是助動詞。)

2)兩類其後是否帶有賓語

分別是:及物動詞(Transitive Verb)、不及物動詞(Intransitive Verb),縮寫形式分別為vt. 和vi.。 說明:同一動詞有時可用作及物動詞,有時可用作不及物動詞。例如:

She can dance and sing.

她能唱歌又能跳舞。(sing在此用作不及物動詞。)

She can sing many English songs.

她能唱好多首英文歌曲。(sing用作及物動詞。)

3) 根據是否受主語的人稱和數的限製

分別是:限定動詞(Finite Verb)、非限定動詞(Non-finite Verb)例如:

She sings very well.

她唱得很好。(sing受主語she的限製,故用第三人稱單數形式sings。)  She wants to learn English well.

動詞動詞

她想學好英語。(to learn不受主語she的限製,沒有詞形變化,是非限定動詞。

說明:英語中共有三種非限定動詞,分別是:動詞不定式(Infinitive)、動名詞(Gerund)、分詞(Participle)。

4)根據動詞的組成形式,可分為三類,

分別是:單字詞(One-Word Verb)、短語動詞(Phrasal Verb)、動詞短語(Verbal Phrase)例如:

The English language contains many phrasal verbs and verbal phrases.

英語裏有許多短語動詞和動詞短語。(contains是單字動詞。)

Students should learn to look up new words in dictionaries.

學生們學會查字典。(look up是短語動詞。)

The young ought to take care of the old.

年輕人應照料老人。(take care of是動詞短語。)

5)動詞有五種形態,

分別是:原形(Original Form)、第三人稱單數形式(Singular Form in Third Personal)、過去式(Past Form)、過去分詞(Past Participle)、現在分詞(Present Participle)。

動詞

連系動詞

系動詞亦稱聯系動詞(Link Verb),作為系動詞。有些不具詞義;有些具有詞義,但不能單獨用作謂語,後邊必須跟表語(亦稱補語),構成系表結構說明主語的狀況、性質、特征等情況。

說明:

有些系動詞又是實義動詞,該動詞表達實義時,有詞義,可單獨作謂語,例如:

He fell ill yesterday. 

他昨天病了。(fell是系動詞,後跟補足語,說明主語情況。)

He fell off the ladder. 

他從梯子上摔下來。fell是實義動詞,單獨作謂語。

1)狀態系動詞

用來表示主語狀態,隻有be一詞,例如:

He is a teacher. 他是一名教師。(is與補足語一起說明主語的身份。)

2)持續系動詞

用來表示主語繼續或保持一種狀況或態度,主要有keep,rest,remain,stay,lie,stand,例如:

He always kept silent at meeting. 他開會時總保持沉默。

This matter rests a mystery. 此事仍是一個謎。

3)表像系動詞

用來表示"看起來像"這一概念,主要有seem,appear,look,例如:

He looks tired. 他看起來很累。

He seems (to be) very sad. 他看起來很傷心。

4)感官系動詞

感官系動詞主要有feel,smell,sound,taste,例如:

This kind of cloth feels very soft. 

這種布手感很軟。

This flower smells very sweet. 

這朵花聞起來很香。

5)變化系動詞

這些系動詞表示主語變成什麽樣,變化系動詞主要有become,grow,turn,fall,get,go,come,run.

例如:

He became mad after that. 自那之後,他瘋了。

She grew rich within a short time. 她沒多長時間就富了。

6)終止系動詞

表示主語已終止動作,主要有prove,trun out,表達"證實","變成"之意,例如:

The rumor proved false. 這謠言證實有假。

The search proved difficult. 搜查證實很難。

His plan turned out a success. 他的計畫終于成功了。(turn out表終止性結果)

助動詞

最常用的助動詞有:be,have,do,shall,will,should,would 1)協助主要動詞構成謂語動詞片語的詞叫助動詞(Auxiliary Verb)。被協助的動詞稱作主要動詞(Main Verb)。

助動詞自身沒有詞義,不可單獨使用,例如:

He doesn't like English. 他不喜歡英語。

(doesn't是助動詞,無詞義;like是主要動詞,有詞義)

2) 助動詞協助主要動詞完成以下功用,可以用來:

a. 表示時態,例如:

He is singing. 他在唱歌。

He has got married. 他已結婚。

b. 表示語態,例如:

He was sent to England. 他被派往英國。

c. 構成一般疑問句,例如:

Do you like college life? 你喜歡大學生活嗎?

Did you study English before you came here? 你來這兒之前學過英語嗎?

d. 與否定副詞not合用,構成否定句,例如:

I don't like him. 我不喜歡他。

e. 加強語氣,例如:

Do come to the party tomorrow evening. 明天晚上一定來參加晚會。

He did know that. 他的確知道那件事。

半助動詞

功能介紹 在功能上介乎主動詞和助動詞之間的一類結構,稱為半助動詞。常見的半助動詞有be about to,be due to,be going to,be likely to,be meant to,be obliged to,be supposed to,be willing to,have to,seem to,be unable to,be unwilling to等。

情態助動詞

情態助動詞1.情態助動詞包括will(would),shall(should),can(could),may(might),must,need,dare,ought to,used to,had better後接原形不定詞。2.情態助動詞不受主詞的人稱和數的限製。3.兩個情態助動詞不能連用。中文:他將能夠及時完成此事。(誤)He will can finish it i......

基本助動詞

基本助動詞基本助動詞隻有三個:be,do,have,他們沒有辭彙意義,隻有文法作用,如協助構成進行體,完成體,被動態,否定句,疑問句等。例如 He is giving a lecture. 他在作報告He has made a plan. 他已經訂了計畫The small animals are kept in the cages. 小動物都關在籠子裏。He doesn't smoke.......

短語動詞

動詞加小品構成的起動詞作用的短語叫短語動詞(Phrasal Verb)。例如:

Turn off the radio. 把收音機關上。(turn off是短語動詞)

短語動詞的構成基本有下列幾種:

1) 動詞+副詞,如:black out;

2) 動詞+介詞,如:look into;

3) 動詞+副詞+介詞,如:look forward to。構成短語動詞的副詞和介詞都統稱為小品詞(Particle)。

非謂語動詞

在句子中充當除謂語以外的句子成分的動詞形式叫做非謂語動詞。非謂語動詞分為三種形式:不定式,動名詞,和分詞(分詞包括現在分詞和過去分詞)。

1)不定式

時態\語態 主動 被動 

一般式 to do to be done

完成式 to have done to have been done

2)動名詞

時態\語態 主動 被動 

一般式 doing being done

完成式 having done having been done

3)分詞

時態\語態 主動 被動 

一般式 doing being done

完成式 having done having been done 

否定形式:not +不定式, not + 動名詞, not + 現在分詞

一個動詞可以在有的場合下及物,有的場合下又不及物。像“kick”這個動詞,在“kick the ball”裏,“kick”是“及物”動詞,“及”什麽“物”呢?這裏的“物”就是“ball”;但是如果隻說“kick”,就是“蹬,跺”,“我跺腳”就隻是“I kick”2個詞就夠了,一個主語一個謂語,我跺腳的動作不涉及賓語,不涉及我跺了什麽,就是我跺腳這個動作而已。

這就是一般句子的基本結構,再復雜的長句也隻是往這個基本結構裏面增加豐富這個基本結構的修飾性的內容了,像定語(修飾名詞),狀語(修飾形容詞和動詞)。

以上是最最基本的句子結構了,別的一些像起始句啊倒裝句啊強調句啊什麽的,還有各種從句,都是在這個基本結構上稍稍變化而來,先把這個句子的基本結構掌握透徹,這些別的問題自然迎刃而解的。

情態動詞

情態動詞是一種本身有一定的詞義,但要與動詞原形及其被動語態一起使用,給謂語動詞增添情態色彩,表示說話人對有關行為或事物的態度和看法,認為其可能、應該或必要等。情態動詞後面加動詞原形。

情態動詞有四類:

①隻做情態動詞:must,can(could),may(might)……

②可做情態動詞又可做實義動詞:need,dare

③具有情態動詞特征:have(had,has) to,used to

④情態動詞表猜測:一肯一否三不定(must一肯,must not一否,can,could,would三不定。) 註:mustn't代表強烈禁止

時態

時態是英語謂語動詞的一種形式,表示動作發生的時間和所處的狀態.英語中的時態是通過動詞形式本身的變化來實現的.英語有16種時態,但中學階段較常用的有十種:一般現在時,一般過去時,一般將來時,過去將來時,現在進行時,過去進行時,將來進行時,過去完成時,現在完成時和現在完成進行時.

時態一致

1) 如果從句所敘述的為真理或不變的事實,則永遠用現在時。

At that time,people did not know that the earth moves.

He told me last week that he is eighteen.

2) 賓語從句中的助動詞ought,need,must,dare 時態是不變的。

He thought that I need not tell you the truth.

時態與時間狀語

時間狀語

一般現在時 every …,sometimes, at+時間,on+時間

一般過去時 yesterday,last+時間,時間+ago,the other day,in+過去的時間,just now

一般將來時 next+時間,tomorrow,in+將來的時間,

現在完成時 for,since,so far,ever,never,just,yet,till/until,up to now,in past+時間,already,recently

過去完成時 before,by,until,when,after,once,as soon as

過去進行時 this morning,the whole morning,all day,yesterday,from+時間 to+時間 last +時間… when,while

將來進行時 soon,tomorrow,this evening,on+時間,by this time,in+將來的時間,tomorrow evening,this coming Sunday

1一般現在時的用法

1) 表示經常性或習慣性的動作,常與表示頻度的時間狀語連用。

時間狀語:every…,sometimes, at…,on Sunday,always,every day,usually,seldom

I leave home for school at 7 every morning.

2) 在時間和條件狀語中代替將來、表示按規定將要發生的事情(動作)狀態和感覺的動作

If you come does aftornoon,we will have a meeting.

3) 表示格言或警句中。

Pride goes before a fall. 驕者必敗。

註意:此用法如果出現在賓語從句中,即使主句是過去時,從句謂語也要用一般現在時。

例:Columbus proved that the earth is round..

4) 現在時刻的狀態、能力、性格、個性。

I don't want so much.

Ann Wang writes good English but does not speak well.

比較:Now I put the sugar in the cup.

I am doing my homework now.

第一句用一般現在時,用于操作演示或指導說明的示範性動作,表示言行的瞬間動作。再如:Now watch me,I switch on the current and stand back. 第二句中的now是進行時的標志,表示正在進行的動作的客觀狀況,所以後句用現在進行時。

2一般過去時的用法

1)在確定的過去時間裏所發生的動作或存在的狀態。

時間狀語有:yesterday,last week,an hour ago,the other day,in 1982等。

Where did you go just now

2)表示在過去一段時間內,經常性或習慣性的動作。

When I was a child,I often played football in the street.

Whenever the Browns went during their visit,they were given a warm welcome. 

3)句型:

It is time for sb. to do sth "到……時間了" "該……了"

It is time sb. did sth. "時間已遲了" "早該……了"

It is time for you to go to bed. 你該睡覺了。

It is time you went to bed. 你早該睡覺了。

would (had) rather sb. did sth. 表示'寧願某人做某事'

I'd rather you came tomorrow.

4) wish,wonder,think,hope 等用過去時,作試探性的詢問、請求、建議等。

I thought you might have some. 我以為你想要一些。

比較:

一般過去時表示的動作或狀態都已成為過去,現已不復存在。

Christine was an invalid all her life. 

(含義:她已不在人間。)

Christine has been an invalid all her life. 

(含義:她現在還活著)

Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years.

(含義:達比太太已不再住在肯塔基州。)

Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years.

( 含義:現在還住在肯塔基州,有可能指剛離去)

註意:用過去時表示現在,表示委婉語氣。

1)動詞want,hope,wonder,think,intend 等。

Did you want anything else

I wondered if you could help me.

2)情態動詞 could,would.

Could you lend me your bike?

used to / be used to

used to + do:"過去常常"表示過去習慣性的動作或狀態,但如今已不存在。

Mother used not to be so forgetful. 

be used to + doing:對……已感到習慣,或"習慣于",to是介詞,後需加名詞或動名詞。

He is used to a vegetarian diet. 

Scarf is used to taking a walk.(現在習慣于散步)

一般將來時

1) shall用于第一人稱,常被will 所代替。

will 在陳述句中用于各人稱,在爭求意見時常用于第二人稱。

Which paragraph shall I read first.

Will you be at home at seven this evening

2) be going +不定式,表示將來。

a. 主語的意圖,即將做某事。

What are you going to do tomorrow

b. 計畫,安排要發生的事。

The play is going to be produced next month。

c. 有跡象要發生的事

Look at the dark clouds,there is going to be a storm.

3) be +不定式表將來,按計畫或正式安排將發生的事。

We are to discuss the report next Saturday.

4) be about +不定式,意為馬上做某事。

He is about to leave for Beijing.

註意:be about to 不能與tomorrow,next week 等表示明確將來時的時間狀語連用。

be going to / will

用于條件句時, be going to 表將來

will 表意願

If you are going to make a journey,you'd better get ready for it as soon as possible.

Now if you will take off your clothes,we will fit the new clothes on you in front of the mirror.

be to和be going to

be to 表示客觀安排或受人指示而做某事。

be going to 表示主觀的打算或計畫。

I am to play football tomorrow afternoon. (客觀安排)

I'm going to play football tomorrow afternoon. (主觀安排)

3現在完成時

現在完成時用來表示之前已發生或完成的動作或狀 態,其結果的確和現在有聯系。動作或狀態發生在過去 但它的影響現在還存在;也可表示持續到現在的動作或 狀態。其構成:have (has) +過去分詞。

用于現在完成時的句型

1)It is the first / second time…. that…結構中的從句部分,用現在完成時。

It is the first time that I have visited the city.

It was the third time that the boy have been late.

2)This is the… that…結構,that 從句要用現在完成時.

This is the best film that I've (ever) seen.

這是我看過的最好的電影。

This is the first time (that) I've heard him sing. 這是我第一次聽他唱歌。

3)最基本句型

主語+have/has+(already/just)+動詞的過去分詞+其他

比較since和for

Since 用來說明動作起始時間,for用來說明動作延續時間長度。

I have lived here for more than twenty years.

I have lived here since I was born..

My aunt has worked in a clinic since 1949. 

Some new oilfields have been opened up since 1976.

I have known Xiao Li since she was a little girl. 

My brother has been in the Youth League for two years. 

I have not heard from my uncle for a long time.

註意:並非有for 作為時間狀語的句子都用現在完成時。

I worked here for more than twenty years.

(我現在已不在這裏工作。)

I have worked here for many years. 

(現在我仍在這裏工作。)

小竅門:當現在完成時+一段時間,這一結構中,我們用下面的公式轉化,很容易就能排除非延續動詞在完成時中的誤使。

1) (對) Tom has studied Russian for three years.

= Tom began to study Russian three years ago,and is still studying it now.

2) (錯) Harry has got married for six years.

= Harry began to get married six years ago,and is still getting married now.

顯然,第二句不對,它應改為 Harry got married six years ago. 或 Harry has been married for six years.

since的四種用法

1) since +過去一個時間點 (如具體的年、月、日期、鍾點、1980,last month,half past six)。

I have been here since 1989.

2) since +一段時間+ ago

I have been here since five months ago.

3) since +從句 

Great changes have taken place since you left.

Considerable time has elapsed since we have been here.

4) It is +一段時間+ since從句

It is two years since I became a postgraduate student.

5)since和for

在現在完成時態,since後面加時間點,for後面加時間段。

延續動詞與瞬間動詞

1) 用于完成時的區別

延續動詞表示經驗、經歷; 瞬間動詞表示行為的結 果,不能與表示段的時間狀語連用。

He has completed the work. 他已完成了那項工作。(表結果)

I've known him since then. 我從那時起就認識他了。(表經歷)

2) 用于till / until從句的差異

延續動詞用于肯定句,表示"做……直到……" 瞬間動詞用于否定句,表示"到……,才……"

He didn't come back until ten o'clock.

他到10 點才回來。

He slept until ten o'clock. 

他一直睡到10點。

4過去完成時

1) 概念:表示動作發生在過去,並在過去完成(即是常說的過去的過去)。

用一示意圖表示如下:

動作發生

------|----------------|----------|---->

過去的過去 過去 現在

其基本構成是:had+動詞過去分詞。

2) 用法

a. 在told,said,knew,heard,thought等動詞後的賓語從句。

She said (that) she had never been to Paris.

b. 狀語從句

在過去不同時間發生的兩個動作中,發生在先,用過去完成時;發生在後,用一般過去時。

When the police arrived,the thieves had run away.

c. 表示意向的動詞,如hope,wish,expect,think,intend,mean,suppose等,用過去完成時表示"原本…,未能…"

We had hoped that you would come,but you didn't.

3) 過去完成時的時間狀語before,by,until,when,after,once,as soon as。

He said that he had learned some English before.

By the time he was twelve,Edison had began to make a living by himself.

Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party.

註意: had no … when 還沒等…… 就……

had no sooner… than 剛…… 就……

He had no sooner bought the car than he sold it.

5將來完成時

1) 構成是由"shall/will + have +過去分詞"構成的。 

a. 狀態完成:表示某事繼續到將來某一時為止一直有的狀態。

b. 動作完成:表示將來某一時或另一個將來的動作之前,已經完成的動作或已獲得的經驗。

They will have been married for 20 years by then.

You will have reached Shanghai by this time tomorrow.

6現在進行時

現在進行時的基本用法:

a. 表示現在( 指說話人說話時) 正在發生的事情。

We are waiting for you.

b. 習慣進行:表示長期的或重復性的動作,說話時動作未必正在進行。

Mr. Green is writing another novel. 

(說話時並未在寫,隻處于寫作的狀態。)

She is learning piano under Mr. Smith.

c. 表示漸變的動詞有:get,grow,become,turn,run,go,begin等。

The leaves are turning red.

It's getting warmer and warmer.

d. 與always,constantly,forever 等詞連用,表示反復發生的動作或持續存在的狀態,往往帶有說話人的主觀色彩。

You are always changing your mind.

不用進行時的動詞

1) 事實狀態的動詞

have,belong,possess,cost,owe,exist,include,contain,matter,weigh,measure,continue

I have two brothers.

This house belongs to my sister.

2) 心理狀態的動詞

Know,realize,think see,believe,suppose,imagine,agree,recognize,remember,want,need,forget,prefer,mean,understand,love,hate

I need your help.

He loves her very much.

3.) 瞬間動詞

accept,receive,complete,finish,give,allow,decide,refuse.

I accept your advice.

4) 系動詞

seem,remain,lie,see,hear,smell,feel,taste,get,become,turn

You seem a little tired.

7過去進行時

1) 概念:表示過去某時正在進行的狀態或動作。

2) 過去進行時的主要用法是描述一件事發生的背景;一個長動作發生的時候,另一個短動作發生。

3) 常用的時間狀語

this morning,the whole morning,all day yesterday,from nine to ten last evening,when,while

將來進行時

1) 概念:表示將來某時進行的狀態或動作,或按預測將來會發生的事情。

She'll be coming soon.

I'll be meeting him sometime in the future.

註意:將來進行時不用于表示"意志",不能說 I'll be having a talk with her.

2)常用的時間狀語

Soon,tomorrow,this evening,on Sunday,by this time,tomorrow,in two days,tomorrow evening

By this time tomorrow,I'll be lying on the beach.

一般現在時表將來

1)下列動詞:come,go,arrive,leave,start,begin,return的一般現在時表將來。這主要用來表示在時間上已確定或安排好的事情。

The train leaves at six tomorrow morning.

When does the bus start? It starts in ten minutes.

2)倒裝句,表示動作正在進行,如:

Here comes the bus. = The bus is coming.

There goes the bell. = The bell is ringing.

3)在時間或條件句中。

When Bill comes (不是will come),ask him to wait for me.

I'll write to you as soon as I arrive there.

4)在動詞hope,take care that,make sure that等後。

I hope they have a nice time next week.

Make sure that the windows are closed before you leave the room.

用現在進行時表示將來

意為:"意圖"、"打算"、"安排"、常用于人。常用詞為 come,go,start,arrive,leave,stay等。

I'm leaving tomorrow.

Are you staying here till next week

時態的相互代替與比較

一般現在時代替將來時

時間狀語從句,條件句中,從句用一般現在時代替將來時

When,while,before,after,till,once,as soon as,so long as,by the time,if,in case (that),unless,even if,whether,the moment,the minute,the day,the year,immediately

He is going to visit her aunt the day he arrives in Beijing. 他一到北京,就去看他姨媽。

一般現在時代替過去時

1 )"書上說","報紙上說"等。

The newspaper says that it's going to be cold tomorrow.

報紙上說明天會很冷的。

2) 敘述往事,使其生動。

Napoleon's army now advances and the great battle begins.

一般現在時代替完成時

1) 有些動詞用一般現在時代替完成時:

hear,tell,learn,write,understand,forget,know,find,say, remember.

I hear (= have heard) he will go to London.

I forget (=have forgotten) how old he is.

2) 句型 " It is … since…"代替"It has been … since …"

3) It is (= has been) five years since we last met.

一般現在時代替進行時

1) 句型:Here comes… ; There goes…

Look,here comes Mr. Li.

現在進行時代替將來時

1) 表示即將發生的或預定中計畫好的活動。

Are you staying with us this weekend? 這周和我們一起度周末嗎

We are leaving soon. 我們馬上就走。

2) 漸變動詞,如:get,run,grow,become,begin及die。

He is dying.

用一般過去時代替完成時

1) 兩個動作如按順序發生,又不強調先後,或用then,and,but 等連詞時,多用一般過去時。

When she saw the mouse,she screamed.

My aunt gave me a hat and I lost it.

2.) 兩個動作相繼發生,可用一般過去時;如第一個動作需要若幹時間完成,用過去完成時。

When I heard the news,I was very excited.

3) 敘述歷史事實,可不用過去完成時,而隻用一般過去時。

Our teacher told us that Columbus discovered America in 1492.

比較過去時與現在完成時

1)過去時表示過去某時發生的動作或單純敘述過去的事情,強調動作;現在完成時為過去發生的,強調過去的事情對現在的影響,強調的是影響。

2)過去時常與具體的時間狀語連用,而現在完成時通常與模糊的時間狀語連用,或無時間狀語。

一般過去時的時間狀語:

yesterday,last week,…ago,in1980,in October,just now,具體的時間狀語

共同的時間狀語: 

this morning,tonight,this April,now,once,before,already,recently,lately 

現在完成時的時間狀語

for,since,so far,ever,never,just,yet, till / until,up to now,in past years,always,

不確定的時間狀語

3)現在完成時可表示持續到現在的動作或狀態,動詞一般是延續性的,

如live,teach,learn,work,study,know.

過去時常用的非持續性動詞有come,go,leave,start,die,finish,become,get married等。

舉例:

I saw this film yesterday.

(強調看的動作發生過了。)

I have seen this film.

(強調對現在的影響,電影的內容已經知道了。) 

Why did you get up so early

(強調起床的動作已發生過了。)

Who hasn't handed in his paper? 

(強調有卷子,可能為不公平競爭。)

She has returned from Paris. 

她已從巴黎回來了。

She returned yesterday.

她是昨天回來了。

He has been in the League for three years.

(在團內的狀態可延續)

He has been a League member for three years.

(是團員的狀態可持續)

He joined the League three years ago. 

( 三年前入團,joined為短暫行為。)

I have finished my homework now. 

---Will somebody go and get Dr. White

---He's already been sent for. 

句子中如有過去時的時間副詞(如 yesterday,last,week,in 1960)時,不能使用現在完成時,要用過去時。

(錯)Tom has written a letter to his parents last night.

(對)Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night.

語態

語態有兩種

主動語態和被動語態。

主語是動作的發出者為主動語態;主語是動作的接受者為被動語態。

1)若賓語補足語是不帶to 的不定式,變為被動語態 時,該不定式前要加"to"。此類動詞為感官動詞。

feel,hear,help,listen to,look at,make,observe,see,notice,watch

The teacher made me go out of the classroom.

--> I was made to go out of the classroom (by the teacher).

We saw him play football on the playground.

--> He was seen to play football on the playground.

2)情態動詞+ be +過去分詞,構成被動語態。

Coal can be used to produce electricity for agriculture and industry.

let 的用法

1)當let後隻有一個單音節動詞,變被動語態時,可用不帶to 的不定式。

They let the strange go.---> The strange was let go.

2) 若let 後賓補較長時,let 通常不用被動語態,而用allow或permit 代替。

The nurse let me go to see my classmate in the hospital.

----> I was allowed / permitted to see my classmate in the hospital

短語動詞的被動語態

短語動詞是一個整體,不可丟掉後面的介詞或副詞。

This is a photo of the power station that has been set up in my hometown.

My sister will be taken care of by Grandma. 

Such a thing has never been heard of before..

表示"據說"或"相信" 的片語

believe,consider,declare,expect,feel,report,say,see,suppose,think,understand

It is said that… 據說 

It is reported that… 據報道 

It is believed that… 大家相信 

It is hoped that… 大家希望

It is well known that… 眾所周知 

It is thought that… 大家認為

It is suggested that… 據建議 

It is taken granted that… 被視為當然 

It has been decided that… 大家決定 

It must be remember that…務必記住的是

It is said that she will leave for Wuhan on Tuesday.

新興形式的被動語態

Get+過去分詞也可以構成被動語態,用這種結構的句子側重于動作的結果而不是動作本身。如: The man got hurt on his way home. 那個男人在回家的路上受傷了。 How did the glass get broken? 杯子怎麽破了?

著名學者周海中教授在論文《Get-Passive研究》中指出:Get+過去分詞的被動語態是一種新興的被動語態形式;相對來說它的使用還沒有Be+過去分詞構成的被動語態那麽廣泛,一般限于口語和非正式書面語;但它卻有著用得愈來愈多的趨勢,是一種生氣蓬勃的語言現象。

註意事項

不用被動語態的情況

1) 不及物動詞或動詞短語無被動語態:

appear,die disappear,end (vi. 結束),fail,happen,last,lie,remain,sit,spread,stand

break out,come true,fall asleep,keep silence,lose heart,take place.

After the fire,very little remained of my house.

比較:rise,fall,happen是不及物動詞;raise,seat是及物動詞。

(錯) The price has been risen.

(對) The price has risen.

(錯) The accident was happened last week. 

(對) The accident happened last week.

要想正確地使用被動語態,就須註意哪些動詞是及物的,哪些是不及物的。特別是一詞多義的動詞往往有兩種用法。解決這一問題唯有在學習過程中多留意積累。

2) 不能用于被動語態的及物動詞或動詞短語:

fit,have,hold,marry,own,wish,cost,notice,watch agree with,arrive at / in,shake hands with,succeed in,suffer from,happen to,take part in,walk into,belong to

This key just fits the lock.

Your story agrees with what had already been heard.

3) 系動詞無被動語態:

appear,be become,fall,feel,get,grow,keep,look,remain,seem,smell,sound,stay,taste,turn

It sounds good.

4) 帶同源賓語的及物動詞,反身代詞,相互代詞,不能用于被動語態:

die,death,dream,live,life

She dreamed a bad dream last night.

5) 當賓語是不定式時,很少用于被動語態。

(對) She likes to swim.

(錯) To swim is liked by her.

主動形式表示被動意義

1)wash,clean,cook,iron,look,cut,sell,read,wear,feel,draw,write,sell,drive…

The book sells well. 這本書銷路好。

This knife cuts easily. 這刀子很好用。

2)blame,let(出租),remain,keep,rent,build

I was to blame for the accident.

Much work remains.

3) 在need,require,want,worth (形容詞),deserve後的動名詞必須用主動形式。

The door needs repairing.= The door needs to be repaired.

This room needs cleaning. 這房間應該打掃一下。

This book is worth reading. 這本書值得一讀。

4) 特殊結構:make sb. heard / understood (使別人能聽見/理解自己),have sth. done ( 要某人做某事)。

被動形式表示主動意義

be determined,be pleased,be graduated (from),be finished,be prepared (for),be occupied (in),get marries

He is graduated from a famous university.

他畢業于一所有名的大學。

註意:表示同某人結婚,用marry sb. 或get married to sb. 都可。

He married a rich girl.

He got married to a rich girl.

need/want/require/worth

註意:當 need,want,require,worth(形容詞)後面接doing也可以表示被動。

Your hair wants cutting. 你的頭發該理了。

The floor requires washing. 地板需要沖洗。

The book is worth reading. 這本書值得一讀。

被動語態更多介紹

一、 被動語態的用法:

1. 一般現在時的被動語態構成:is / am / are + 及物動詞的過去分詞

Our classroom is cleaned everyday.

I am asked to study hard.

Knives are used for cutting things.

2. 一般過去時的被動語態構成:was / were + 及物動詞的過去分詞

A new shop was built last year.

Dinosaur eggs were laid long long ago.

3. 現在完成時的被動語態構成:has / have + been + 及物動詞的過去分詞

This book has been translated into many languages.

Many man-made satellites have been sent up into space by many countries.

4. 一般將來時的被動語態構成:will+ be + 及物動詞的過去分詞

A new hospital will be built in our city.

Many more trees will be planted next year.

5. 含有情態動詞的被動語態構成:情態動詞+ be + 及物動詞的過去分詞

Young trees must be watered often.

Your mistakes should be corrected right now.

The door may be locked inside.

Your homework can be handed in tomorrow.

6. 現在進行時的被動語態構成:am / is / are + being + 及物動詞的過去分詞

Uncle Wang is mending my bike now.→

My bike is being repaired by Tom now.

They are planting trees over there. →

Trees are being planted over there by them.

7. 不定式的被動語態:to + be + 及物動詞的過去分詞

There are two books to be read. →

There are twenty more trees to be planted.

二、 怎樣把主動語態改成被動語態?

把主動語態改為被動語態非常簡單,可以遵循以下幾個步驟:

1. 先找出謂語動詞;

2. 再找出謂語動詞後的賓語;

3. 把賓語用作被動語態中的主語;

4. 註意人稱、時態和數的變化。

例:1. Bruce writes a letter every week. →A letter is written by Bruce every week.

2. Li Lei mended the broken bike this morning.→The broken bike was mended by Li Lei this morning.

3. He has written two novels so far.→Two novels have been written by him so far.

4. They will plant ten trees tomorrow.→Ten trees will be planted by them tomorrow.

5. Lucy is writing a letter now.→A letter is being written by Lucy now.

6. You must lock the door when you leave.→the door must be locked when you leave.

三、 使用被動語態應註意的幾個問題:

1. 不及物動詞無被動語態。

What will happen in 100 years

The dinosaurs disappeared about 65 million years ago.

2. 有些動詞用主動形式表示被動意義。

This pen writes well.

This new book sells well.

3. 感官動詞或使役動詞使用省略to的動詞不定式,主動語態中不帶to ,但變為被動語態時,須加上to。

例:make somebody do something→somebody+ be +made to do something

see somebody do something→somebody +be +seen to do something

A girl saw my wallet drop when she passed by.→My wallet was seen to drop by a girl when she passed by.

The boss made the little boy do heavy work.→The little boy was made to do heavy work by the boss.

4. 如果是接雙賓語的動詞改為被動語態時,直接賓語(物)作主語,那麽動詞後要用介詞,這個介詞是由與其搭配的動詞決定。

He gave me a book.→A book was given to me by him.

He showed me a ticket.→A ticket was shown to me by him.

My father bought me a new bike. →A new bike was bought for me by my father.

5. 一些動詞短語用于被動語態時,動詞短語應當看作一個整體,而不能丟掉其中的介詞或副詞。

We can’t laugh him. →He can’t be laugh by us.

He listens to the radio every day. →The radio is listened to by him every day.

動詞的分類

動詞分為五種:記物動詞,不及物動詞,連系動詞,助動詞和情態動詞

1.及物動詞:是指後面需要使用賓語是其意義完整的動詞.

如:那條狗是這個孩子高興起來。That dog makes the boy happy.

2.不及物動詞:是指後面不需要賓語而意義完整的動詞

如: 我住在北京. I live in Beijing.

3.連系動詞:一個表示謂語關系的動詞,後面必須接表語(通常為名詞或形容詞)一起使用。

最主要的聯系動詞是"be (am is are)". 其他常用的連系動詞還有:seem 似乎 look 看起來 appear 好象 become 變成 keep 保持 get (成為)

如:他是一位好教師。He is a good teacher.

這花很好聞。The flower smells good.

4.助動詞:是指用來幫助主要動詞完成文法功能的動詞。這類動詞本身沒有意義,不能單獨作謂語。他們可以在句中與實義動詞一起幫助構成疑問句,否定句,進行時態,完成時態和將來時態。

助動詞有:

Be (構成進行時) 如:我正在讀書。I am reading a book.

Do (構成疑問句,否定句) 如:你喜歡蘋果嗎?不,我不喜歡。Do you like apple? No,I don’t.

Have (構成完成時態) 如:我明天來看你。I will come to se you tomorrow.

5.情態動詞:是指表示說話人的語氣或者情態的動詞。情態動詞沒有人稱和數的變化,詞義不完全 在句中不能單獨作謂語,必須與後面的動詞原形合用。

我們常用的情態動詞有:

Can (能,會) 如:I can swim. 我會遊泳。

May (可以) 如:You may go now. 你現在可以走了。

Must (必須) 如:You must do your homework. 你必須寫作業。

Need (需要) 如:He needs our help. 他需要我們的幫助。

二、動詞的基本形式

絕大多數動詞都有五種基本形式:動詞原形、一般現在是第三人稱單數、過去時、過去分詞和現在分詞。

A、 第三人稱單數形式的構成

一般現在時主語是第三人稱單數,謂語動詞後要加s或es,其變化規則與名詞變復數的方法大體相同:

1. 一般情況下隻在動詞後加s,如work-works,write-writes。

2. 以s,x,sh,ch結尾的動詞,後加es,如guess-guesses,mix-mix,finish-finishes,catch-catches。

3. 以輔音字母加y結尾的動詞,改y為i,如study-studies。

註:不規則變化的有have-has,be-are,go-goes,do-does等。

B、 現在分詞的構成

1. 一般情況下在動詞後加ing,如study-studying,work-working。

2. 以不發音的字母e結尾的動詞,去“e”再加“ing”,如write-writing,move-moving。

3. 以一個母音字母和一個輔音結尾的重讀音節結尾的動詞,要雙寫最後字母再加“ing”,如get-getting,begin-beginning。

4. 以ie結尾的動詞,一般將ie改為y,再加ing,如lie-lying,die-dying,tie-tying。

註:以I結尾的動詞,尾音節重讀時,雙寫I,如control-controlling;尾音節不重讀時,雙不雙寫都可以,如 travel-traveling(美)/travelling(英)。

C、過去式的構成

1. 一般情況直接加ed,如ask-asked,work-worked。

2. 以不發音的e結尾,隻加d,如love-loved,dance-danced。

3. 以輔音字母加y結尾,把y改i,如try-tried,study-studied。

4. 以一個母音字母和一個輔音結尾的重讀音節結尾的動詞,先雙末尾一個字母,再加ed,如stop-stopped,permit-permitted

表格總結

類別說明例句
行為動詞
Action Verbs
含有實在的意義,表示動作或狀態,在句中能獨立作謂語。She has a new friend from Australia.
He takes the train every day.
He leaves for school at around seven.
連系動詞
Link Verbs

本身具有一定的詞義,但不能獨立作謂語,必須與表語一起

構成謂語。

He is popular in school.
Twins usually look the same.
Trees turn green in spring.
助動詞
Auxiliary Verds

不能獨立作謂語,隻能和主要動詞一起構成謂語動詞,用

來表示否定、疑問、時態、語態或其他文法形式,助動詞

​自身有人稱、單復數和時態的變化。

I don't want to go for adrive.(否定)
We are playing basketball.(進行時態)
Do you speak a little tomatoes ?(疑問)
情態動詞
Modality Verbs

本身有一定的意義,不能獨立做謂語,隻能和主要動詞一起

構成謂語動詞,表示說話人的語氣和情態。情態動詞沒有人

和單復數的變化,有些情態動詞有過去式。

Shecan speak a little English.
You should drink more water.

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