不定代詞

不定代詞

不定代詞,即不指明代替任何特定名詞或形容詞的代詞英語文法術語。

  • 中文名稱
    不定代詞
  • 舉例
    something,somebody,someone
  • 用法
    代替名詞和形容詞
  • 作用
    作主語、賓語、表語、定語和狀語
  • 位置
    不定代詞+to do

定義

不定代詞,簡單說:不指明代替任何特定名詞或形容詞的代詞;

不定代詞大都可以代替名詞和形容詞,在句中作主語、賓語、表語和定語.

常用不定代詞有:

some(something,somebody,someone),any(anything,anybody,anyone), no(nothing,nobody,no one), every(everything,everybody,everyone),all,each,both,much,many,(a)little,(a)few,other(s),another,none,one,either, neither等。 一般來講,修飾不定代詞的詞要置于其後。

由body,one,thing構成的合成代詞:

somebody,anybody,everybody,nobody

someone,anyone,everyone,no one

something,anything,everything,nothing

作代詞的限定詞:

all,another,any,both,each,either

few,little,many,much,neither,none

other,some

還有不能兼作代詞的限定詞(形容詞)(主要是every,no)。

用法

不定代詞大部分可以代替名詞和形容詞,在句中作主語、賓語、表語、定語和狀語

作主語

Both of them are teachers.他們兩人都是教師。

做主語時謂語動詞用單數

作賓語

I know nothing about this person.我對這個人一無所知

作表語

This book is too much difficult for a child.這本書對一個小孩來說太難了。

作定語

There is a little water in the glass.玻璃杯裏有一些水。

可以在強調一下a little,little,a few,few的區別:

a little通常帶有肯定的意思,表示還有一點;而little帶有否定的意思,隻剩一點兒了。(little後通常加不可數名詞)a few和few同上。(後通常加可數名詞)

作狀語

I can't find my book anywhere.我在任何地方都不能找到我的書。

這一句也可以表示成:

I can find my book nowhere.我在任何地方都不能找到我的書。

修飾不定代詞的詞,一般情況下要後置.

舉例

一般不定代詞用法例子

1.some 一些,某些,某個

不定代詞some可以代替名詞和形容詞,常用在肯定句中作主語(也可以在以would,may,can,could疑問詞開頭的句子做主語)、賓語、定語等。作定語時,它可以修飾可數名詞(單、復數皆可)和不可數名詞。例如:

some are doctors,some are nurses.有些人是醫生,有些人是護士。(作主語)

2.any一些,任何

不定代詞any可以代替名詞和形容詞,常用在否定句疑問句中作主語、賓語、定語等。作定語時,它可以修飾可數名詞(多為復數)和不可數名詞。例如:

there isn't any ink in my pen.我的鋼筆沒有墨水。(作定語)

不定代詞any有時也可以用在肯定句中,表示"任何的"。例如:

you may come at any time;i'll be home the whole day.你任何時候來都行,我整天都將呆在家裏 。

不定代詞any也可以用作副詞,做狀語,表示程度。例如:

is he any better today?他今天好一點了嗎?

3.all 全體,所有(指三者以上,包括三者)

不定代詞

不定代詞all在句中可以作主語、賓語、表語、定語或同位語。它可以代表或修飾可數名詞和不可數名詞。代表或修飾可數名詞時,指兩個以上的人或物。作先行詞時,引導詞用that。例如:

All were present at the meeting.全都到會了。(作主語,代表可數名詞)

4.both 全部,都

不定代詞both指兩個人或事物。和all一樣,可以用作主語、賓語、定語或同位語。例如:

we invited both to come to our farm.我們邀請兩個人都來我們的農場?(作賓語)

5.none 無人或無

不定代詞none的含義和all物相反,和no one,not any同義,但其用法相當于名詞,在句子中一般作主語或賓語。它代替不可數名詞作主語時,謂語動詞用單數形式;代替可數名詞作主語時,謂語動詞用單、復數皆可。例如:

none of the problems is /are easy to solve.這些問題沒有一個是容易解決的。(作主語, 代替可數名詞)

6.either 兩者之中的任何一個,這個或那個。

不定代詞 either 可以作主語、賓語和定語。例如:

either of them will agree to this arrangment.他們兩人中會有人同意這樣的安排的。(作主語)

7.neither 兩者都不

不定代詞 neither 是 either 的否定形式,可以作主語、賓語和定語。例如:

neither is interesting.兩個都沒有趣。(作主語)

8.each 每個,各自的

不定代詞each指每一個人或事物的個別情況,甚至指這些個別情況各不相同。它在句中可以作主語、賓語、定語和同位語。例如:

she gave the children two apples each.她給了每個小孩兩個蘋果。(作the children的同位語。)

9.every 每個,每一的,一切的

不定代詞every有"全體"的意思,和all的意義相近,但隻能作定語。

I believe either method will work.(作定語)

10.neither 兩個之中一個也不是不定代詞neither是either的否定形式,可以作主語、賓語和定語.例如:

Neither is interesting.(作主語)

-Did you see Mary and Jack?

-No,I saw neither of them.(作賓語)

I think neither book is worth reading.(作定語)

註:a.不定代詞neither表示"兩個都不",所以漢語的"我倆都沒去那兒"譯成英語為"Neither of us went
there."而不能譯成 "Both of us did not go there."後者意為"我倆沒都去那兒".

b.肯定形式的動詞+neither=否定形式的動詞+either.例如:

I like neither of them.=I dont like either of them.

11.other 其他的,另外的不定代詞other相當于名詞或形容詞,可以在句中作主語、賓語、定語等.相當于名詞時,有復數形式

others,還有所有格形式 others 和others.不定代詞 other之前常用冠詞 the.例如:

He has two daughters .One is a teacher,the other is a nurse.(作主語)

Some will go swimming,others will go shopping.(作主語)

I have two pictures of the Great Wall here.You have seen one.Now

Ill show you the other .(作賓語)

There are other ways of helping him out of difficulty.(作定語)

12.another

另一個,又一個another是由an和other合並構成,因此,它隻能代替或修飾可數的單數名詞,前面不再用冠詞.不定代詞another可以在句中作主語、賓語、表語和定語.例如:

One is blind,another is deaf,and a third is lame.(作主語)

This shirt is too small for me.Please show me another .(作賓語)

She is a fool,and her husband is another.(作表語)

Would you like another cup of milk?(作定語)

You will have to stay here for another five days.(作定語,five

days形式上是復數,但意義上是單數,可以和another連用)

13.one

1)不定代詞one指不定人稱,表示人,譯為"人","一個人"等.它有反身代詞oneself和所有格形式ones.

2)不定代詞one也可以用來代替前面出現過的可數名詞,以免重復.它有復數形式ones,可以與冠詞連用,可以有自己的定語.

不定代詞one可以在句中作主語或賓語;ones隻能作定語.例如:

One has to do ones best.(one 作主語,ones作定語.)

Please give me the book,the one on the desk.(one作賓語)

14.none of 沒有一個

作主語時謂語動詞可單可雙

15.(a)few (a)little(幾乎沒有)有一些

(a)few+可數 復數 few (指幾乎沒有,含否定意味)+可數

(a)little+不可數 little(指幾乎沒有,含否定意味)+不可數

復合不定代詞

1.some, any, every, no都能和one, body, thing一起構成代詞,這些代詞叫復合不定代詞。它們基本含義為:

人 somebody

someone 某人

anybody 、anyone :任何人

everybody 、everyone:每人

nobody 、no one :沒人

指物 Something某物某事 anything任何事物 everything一切 nothing沒東西

2. 一般情況下,some構成的復合不定代詞,其作用和some相同,用于肯定句;any構成的復合不定代詞用于否定句或疑問句;no構成的復合不定代詞表示否定含義,用于否定句。如:

① I have something to tell you. 我有事要告訴你。

② He didn't say anything at the meeting yesterday. 昨天在會上他沒發言。

③ Everybody likes swimming. 每個人都喜歡遊泳。

④ There is nothing wrong with your ears.

你耳朵沒毛病。

3. something可用于提建議或請求的問句中,以及希望說話對方作出肯定回答的問句中。如:

Would you like something to eat? 你要吃點東西嗎?

4. 復合不定代詞在句子中作主語時,謂語動詞一般用單數形式。如:

Nobody knows his name. 沒有人知道他的名字。

5. 不定代詞的定語要後置。如:

Is there anything important in today's newspaper? 今天的報紙上有什麽重要新聞嗎?

一般的,不定代詞(包括復合不定代詞)在句子中,通常用第三人稱單數形式

6。復合不定代詞的否定。

1、"not every-"表示的是部分否定,意為"並非都,不都"。例如:

Not everything will go well. 並非一切都會那麽順利。

The teacher didn't call everyone's name. 老師並沒有點所有人的名。

2、"not any-"和no-均表示全否定。例如:

He listened, but heard nothing.他聽了聽,但什麽也沒聽到。

= He listened, but didn't hear anything.

You haven't called anyone/anybody up, have you? 你沒給誰打過電話,是嗎?

= You have called no one/nobody up, have you?

1.不定式是英語動詞的一種形式。它在許多情況下可省略"to",它不同于漢語動詞,漢語動詞隻有一種形式。如:我看書。她看書。但英語要說"看"必須根據主語的人稱,動作發生的時間等確定其形式。如:1)I read a book. 2)She reads a book.1)句中的"read"

一般現在時第一人稱的動詞定式。2)句中的"reads"是一般現在時第三人稱單數的動詞定式。

I want to read a book./She wants to read a book.

我想要看書。她想要看書。其中的"看"不易確定其形式。因為動作還未發生,因此稱不定式。通俗的說,就是"不一定是什麽形式"

2.不定代詞是不指明代替任何特定名詞或形容詞的代詞,英語中不定代詞有:some(something,somebody,someone),any(anything,anybody,anyone), no(nothing,nobody,no one), every(everything,everybody,everyone),all,each,both,much,many,(a)little,(a)few,other(s),another,none,one,either, neither等。

1) 陳述部分的主語是I,疑問部分要用 aren't I.

I'm as tall as your sister,aren't I?

2) 陳述部分的謂語是wish,疑問部分要用may +主語。

I wish to have a word with you, may I?

3) 陳述部分用 no, nothing, nobody, never, few, seldom, hardly, rarely, little等否定含義的詞時,疑問部分用肯定含義。

The Swede made no answer, did he / she?

Some plants never blown (開花), do they ?

4) 含有ought to 的反意疑問句,陳述部分是肯定的,疑問部分用shouldn't / oughtn't +主語。

He ought to know what to do, oughtn't he? / shouldn't he?

5) 陳述部分有have to +v. (had to + v.),疑問部分常用don't +主語(didn't +主語)。

We have to get there at eight tomorrow, don't we?

6) 陳述部分的謂語是used to 時,疑問部分用didn't +主語或 usedn't +主語。

He used to take pictures there, didn't he? / usedn't he?

7) 陳述部分有had better + v. 疑問句部分用hadn't you?

You'd better read it by yourself, hadn't you?

8) 陳述部分有would rather +v.,疑問部分多用 wouldn't +主語。

He would rather read it ten times than recite it, wouldn't he?

9) 陳述部分有You'd like to +v. 疑問部分用wouldn't +主語。

You'd like to go with me, wouldn't you?

10) 陳述部分有must 的疑問句,疑問部分根據實際情況而定。

He must be a doctor, isn't he?

You must have studied English for three years, haven't you? / didn't you?

He must have finished it yesterday, didn't he?

11)感嘆句中,疑問部分用be +主語。

What colours, aren't they?

What a smell, isn't it?

12) 陳述部分由neither… nor, either… or 連線的並列主語時,疑問部分根據其實際邏輯意義而定。

Neither you nor I am engineer, are we?

13) 陳述部分主語是指示代詞或不定代詞everything, that, nothing, this, 疑問部分主語用it。

Everything is ready, isn't it?

14) 陳述部分為主語從句或並列復合句,疑問部分有三種情況:

a. 並列復合句疑問部分,謂語動詞根據鄰近從句的謂語而定。

Mr. Smith had been to Beijing for several times, he should have been in China now, shouldn't he?

b. 帶有定語從句,賓語從句的主從復合句,疑問部分謂語根據主句的謂語而定:

He is not the man who gave us a talk, is he?

He said he wanted to visit Japan, didn't he?

c. 上述部分主句謂語是think, believe, expect, suppose, imagine等引導的定語從句,疑問部分與賓語從句相對應構成反意疑問句。

I don't think he is bright, is he?

We believe she can do it better, can't she?

15) 陳述部分主語是不定代詞everybody, anyone, somebody, nobody, no one等,疑問部分常用復數they,有時也用單數he。

This is our new headmaster, isn't it?

Those are Japanese, aren't they?

One should be ready to help others, shouldn't one?

One can't be too careful, can you?

Each of the students has a dictionary, hasn't he?

Each of the students passed the examination, didn't they?

None of his money is left, is it?

None of his friends are interested, are they?

None of his friends has come, has he?

Something will have to be done about the price, won't it?

Everybody is kind to you, aren't they?

No one left here yesterday, did they?

Someone turned that radio down, don't they?

Neither side could win, could they?

Everything that he says is false, isn't it?

I am older than you, aren't I / ain't I?

I am working now, ain't I / am I not?

I wish to see the movie now, may I?

I wish I were you, may I?

16) 帶情態動詞dare或need的反意疑問句,疑問部分常用 need (dare ) +主語。

We need not do it again, need we ?

He dare not say so, dare you?

當dare, need 為實義動詞時,疑問部分用助動詞do + 主語。

She doesn't dare to go home alone, does she?

17) 省去主語的祈使句的反意疑問句,疑問部分用will you。

Don't do that again, will you?

Go with me, will you / won't you ?

註意: Let's 開頭的祈使句,後用shall we?

Let us 開頭的祈使句,後用will you?

Let's go and listen to the music, shall we?

Let us wait for you in the reading-room, will you ?

18) 陳述部分是"there be"結構的,疑問部分用there省略主語代詞。

There is something wrong with your watch, isn't there?

There will not be any trouble, will there?

19)否定首碼不能視為否定詞,其反意疑問句仍用否定形式。

It is impossible, isn't it?

He is not unkind to his classmates, is he?

20) must在表"推測"時,根據其推測的情況來確定反意疑問句。

He must be there now, isn't he?

It must be going to rain tomorrow, won't it?

快速記憶表

陳述部分的謂語 疑問部分

I aren't I

Wish may +主語

no,nothing,nobody,never,

few, seldom, hardly, 肯定含義

rarely, little等否定

含義的詞

ought to(肯定的) shouldn't/ oughtn't +主語

have to+v.(had to+v.) don't +主語(didn't +主語)

used to didn't +主語或 usedn't +主語

had better + v. hadn't you

would rather + v. wouldn't +主語

you'd like to + v. wouldn't +主語

must 根據實際情況而定

感嘆句中 be +主語

Neither…nor,

either…or 連線的根 據其實際邏輯意義而定

並列主語

指示代詞或不定代詞

everything,that, 主語用it

nothing,this

並列復合句 謂語根據鄰近從句的謂語而定

定語從句,賓語從句的

主從復合句 根據主句的謂語而定

think,believe,expect,

suppose,imagine等引導 與賓語從句相對應的從句

everybody,anyone,

somebody,nobody,no one 復數they,單數he

情態動詞dare或need need (dare ) +主語

dare, need 為實義動詞do +主語

省去主語的祈使句will you?

Let's 開頭的祈使句Shall we?

Let us 開頭的祈使句Will you?

there be 相應的謂語動詞+there(省略主語代詞)

否定首碼不能視為否定詞 仍用否定形式

不定代詞做主語謂語動詞用單數

must表"推測" 根據其推測的情況來確定反意疑問句

相關詞條

相關搜尋

其它詞條